Malaria is a disease of humans that can strike any time of year. The most common symptoms are fever, fatigue, and red skin lesions. Other symptoms include muscle pain and weakness, headaches, nausea, vomiting, and drowsiness. Mention the word "malaria" to many people and they'll probably think of a mosquito bite or two. However, malaria is much more than that.
It's a tropical illness caused by three species of the genus Plasmodium. These are:
• Plasmodium vivax (also known as "Plasmodium viremic")
• Plasmodium malariae (also called "Malaria")
• Plasmodium berghei (also called "Cooöee")
Vaccination against malaria isn't new the malarial parasite has been fought for hundreds of years with mixed results. Today, there are several effective drugs available to control the disease and even treat it when necessary but cases have increased over the past few decades due to urbanization and climate change.
In this article, we highlight the basics of malaria including its biology, epidemiology (where it's found), clinical manifestations, diagnosis & treatment options so you know what to watch out for if you or a loved one contracts this pesky little bug.
What is malaria?
Malaria, along with yellow fever and poliomyelitis, is one of the three main diseases that cause infectious diseases in humans. The other two are dengue and herpes viruses. This disease is spread when the tiny, mosquito-borne parasite called malaria parasites are injected into the bloodstream.
The parasite travels to the brain where it causes a disease called 'encephalitis' which is the cause of the sudden and severe headaches and 'dementia pugilistica' (sounds like 'pugilistic dementia') among infected individuals. The mosquitoes that spread malaria are also the ones that spread yellow fever and poliomyelitis. The most common sites of infection are southeast Asia, Africa, and the Indian subcontinent.
Most cases of malaria attack the brain, liver, or muscle in the first few days or weeks of illness. However, it can attack any part of the body, even the muscle that controls the eyes! This is why it's important to find out where the infection is located in order to treat it. Malaria is the most common infectious disease in the world, occurring annually in more than 100 countries. Currently, the main causes of malaria are: • Malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae) • Malaria (Plasmodium berghei)
Diagnostic criteria for malaria
Malaria is a diagnosis involving four criteria: fever, weakness, anemia, and abdominal pain. Other symptoms may occur, but these are the ones that are diagnostic. Malaria is diagnosed using the CDC method. A patient is given a series of tests to determine the causative agent and potential secondary causes.
For example, a patient with a positive malaria specimen and positive test results would have the parasite known as 'bilirubin' which causes 'bile' or 'yellow bile'. A positive test would also indicate the presence of other parasites such as 'neurosyphilis', 'tropical tetanus', and other bacteria such as 'Strep' The drugs used to treat malaria are called antimalarial agents. There are currently six patent-owned antimalarial agents that are used around the world to treat malaria: chloroquine (generic name, chloroquine), quinacrine, beri-xima, mefloquine, and ovale. Besides these, many other drugs are under investigation for their potential use in treating malaria.
Prognosis for patients with uncomplicated malaria
Most people who contract malaria develop a mild illness. Some people, however, develop a more severe form of the disease called 'benignancy' which can lead to death from septicemia.
While most people Recover from Malaria Without Specialty Support, a small number of individuals are at risk of serious complications including:
Deadbeat parents who don't care for their children
Pre-teens and teenagers who don't have a job or education
People who don't get on the required medication
People who are too poor to get on the medication
-A high index of suspicion is needed for patients with severe malaria. This is because the infection is usually more severe, more complicated, and more advanced. If the infection is complicated, an ultrasound of the heart may be used to determine whether it is enlarging. If the heart is enlarged, the patient may need a heart transplant. People with severe malaria should be tested for other infections such as rubella, mumps, and meningitis.
These infections can and often are confused with malaria. Malaria can be treated with a combination of drugs, but it's important to follow the instructions exactly because of possible variations in the product ingredients. If possible, avoid direct sunlight (less than 10 hours of direct sunlight in the day) because this can cause more harm than good by causing redness and irritation to the skin.
Wash your hands frequently with soap and water and avoid getting water logged or muddy. Consumers of tobacco products should be aware of the risk of getting this disease. If a smoker is suspected of having the disease, he or she should be treated and monitored for side effects for several weeks. Make sure you and your loved ones get plenty of sleep.
Try to go to bed at a reasonable hour and get up early the next day. This will help your body to wake up properly and will allow you to feel alert and focused without being too difficult on the body. Drink plenty of water. This will help you to feel full and stop you from feeling too tired.
Malaria is a common mosquito-borne disease that can cause serious illness in humans. Although it is treatable with an effective vaccine, it remains a serious disease that can be prevented by wearing long sleeves and pants when outdoors.
Thanks for your contribution to the STEMsocial community. Feel free to join us on discord to get to know the rest of us!
Please consider delegating to the @stemsocial account (85% of the curation rewards are returned).
Thanks for including @stemsocial as a beneficiary, which gives you stronger support.
Thank you ☺️
Thanks for this such technical post about Malaria, fortunately it is more controlled than yesterday. But we should continue fighting against it
You are welcome 🙂